My newest book project, which got underway in August 2017, is provisionally titled Outside the Gate City: Metropolitan Ambitions on Georgia’s Fall Line, a nod to Atlanta’s onetime nickname “The Gate City.” My research examines planning and growth strategies in three cities–Augusta, Macon, and Columbus–in the 20th century and situates them in relation to Atlanta’s emerging regional dominance. These cities have been neglected in urban history scholarship. Moreover, as Richard Harris’s recent essay, “A Portrait of North American Urban Historians,” in the Journal of Urban History suggests, few historians are currently concentrating on southern cities or smaller cities regardless of region.
The Fall Line, the natural slope that separates the Piedmont from the Coastal Plain, furnished water power for industry and marked the head of navigation on the Savannah, Ocmulgee, and Chattahoochee Rivers. Until the late 19th century, any of the cities that grew along the Fall Line in Georgia and in the Carolinas seemed capable of taking their place alongside older seaport cities such as Savannah and Charleston, but the rapid rise of upland cities such as Atlanta, Nashville, and Birmingham in the late 19th and early 20th centuries relegated the Fall Line cities to second-tier (if not third-tier) status in the Southeast. The Fall Line also overlaps closely with the so-called “Black Belt,” a region within a region that relied heavily on cotton into the 20th century and continues to have an African American population that ranges from about 40 to 60 percent of the overall population.
This comparative study explores how the three cities strove to be more than small urban hubs for processing agricultural products (first cotton and then other commodities ranging from peaches to pigs). Each carved out a niche for itself as the market for perhaps a dozen and a half rural counties. All three cities, starting with Columbus, succeeded in securing permanent military installations. Each sought to develop its river, whether for hydroelectric power, industrial development, or navigation (or all three), none more so than Augusta. Much more than Columbus and Macon, Augusta also led the way as a regionally significant tourist destination and medical center. The distances that separated each city from the others may have diminished leaders’ resolve to compete head to head with other Fall Line cities. Nonetheless, I am interested in the ways these cities sometimes treated each other as rivals. I am also interested in the degree to which they emulated Atlanta’s forward-looking growth agenda and, eventually, Savannah’s efforts to harness history and culture. All three cities experienced substantial growth, especially in the 1940s and 1950s, but for most of the 20th century their growth lagged behind the region. In addition, after World War II, as was true in many other cities, the older urban centers declined as suburbs grew. However, thanks to aggressive annexation and successful consolidation, Columbus managed to grow along with its metropolitan expansion while Augusta and then Macon eventually succumbed to population loss once their ability to annex waned–until they also ultimately consolidated with their counties.
With support from a Faculty Scholarship Initiative award from the Office of Research at Cleveland State University, I made three research trips to Augusta and three to Macon to collect extensive primary materials and have been mining the online archives of the Augusta Chronicle, Macon Telegraph, and Columbus Enquirer. As I’ve done with past book projects, I dug in with an initial paper that I presented at the Urban History Association 2018 conference in Columbia, South Carolina. This grew into an article titled “Making ‘The Garden City of the South’: Beautification, Preservation, and Downtown Planning in Augusta, Georgia,” which was published online first in the Journal of Planning History in October 2019 with print publication to follow in 2020.
Alongside ongoing book research, I am also taking a deeper, more pinpointed dive into comparing city planning approaches to a distinctive urban feature shared by Augusta, Macon, and Columbus–their extraordinarily wide main downtown streets, which along with New Orleans’s Canal Street are among the widest main streets in the United States. I was pleased to receive the John Nolen Research Fund Award to support research on Nolen’s planning work in Columbus in the 1920s in the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections at Cornell University Library. I presented a paper on this topic at the 18th National Conference on Planning History (SACRPH) in Arlington, Virginia, in November and am revising the paper into a second article.
Most recently I worked in two Macon mayoral collections and a Georgia cities vertical file at the Special Collections Libraries at the University of Georgia. In the coming months I will do research on the Columbus portion of the project at Columbus State University Library and Columbus Public Library in Columbus, as well as return to the Middle Georgia Archives in Macon. With a tentative chapter structure laid out, my current plan is to complete all major research and start writing in 2020.